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It begins by highlighting the adverse impact of the increasing intensity and duration of drought and heat stress due to global warming on crop productivity and its impact on food and nutritional security in dryland environments. This synthesis of technological innovations and insights in seed-based technology offers crop genetic enhancers further opportunities to increase crop productivity in dryland environments. Introduction Global warming overall is predicted to have negative effects on agricultural output and productivity.
The current world population of 7. Current yield growth trends are insufficient to match the growing demand for food Ray et al. Hence, meeting the dietary and nutritional requirements of an increasing population remains an enormous challenge. Changes in weather pattern, erratic and uncertain rainfall, and rises in temperature have led to more frequent and longer dry spells and heat waves in many places.
In addition to impacting crop growth and yields, such changes may affect crop performance by increasing infestations of insects and other pests, disease epidemics, and weed prevalence, and decreasing pollinating insects Myers et al. Declining food quality and increased risk of food and feed contaminated with mycotoxin-producing fungi have the potential to adversely impact human and animal health Dwivedi et al.
Underground aquifers are rapidly being depleted due to excessive water use Morison et al. The acreage of dryland agriculture will expand due to global warming Challinor et al. Thus, drought and heat stress present critical challenges for enhancing crop productivity to ensure global food security Lesk et al.
There are more than million hectares of dryland cereal and legume crops worldwide. A recent study involving six major crop commodity groups in countries reported losses from — of 1. The major cereal crops are narley Hordeum vulgare L. Br , rice Oryza sativa L.
Moench and wheat Triticum aestivum L. The major legume crops are chickpea Cicer arietinum L.
Groundnut and soybean are also the main sources of edible oil. In comparison to recent reviews with focus on understanding physiological and genetic basis of drought and heat stress tolerance Kaushal et al.
Synthesis Physiological Basis of Adaptation to Stress Tolerance Drought and Heat Natural variation in response to drought or heat stress among and within crop species has been reported elsewhere Dwivedi et al. Physiological basis of drought and heat stress tolerance in grain legumes from — Physiological basis of drought and heat stress tolerance in cereals from — Drought and heat stress often occur together.
Is tolerance to both genetically distinct from tolerance to either? Prasad et al. In maize, tolerance to combined drought and heat stress is due to distinct genes Cairns et al. In chickpea, drought and heat stress individually damaged membranes and decreased cellular oxidizing ability, stomatal conductance, PSII function, and leaf chlorophyll content, with greater damage noted with the combined stress Awasthi et al. Sucrose and starch concentrations declined significantly with combined stress.
Drought stress had a greater effect on grain yield than heat stress, and the accessions showed partial cross-tolerance Awasthi et al. In lentil, heat stress reduced seed yield more than drought stress, while the combined stress severely reduced seed size and seed weight, largely due to a reduction in sucrose and starch-synthesizing enzymes.
The combined stress, however, had less effect on drought- and heat-tolerant lines, probably due to a partial cross-tolerance to the two stresses Sehgal et al.
Thus, the interactions between drought and heat stress should be considered when addressing these stresses in breeding programs. Natural variation in grain yield in response to eCO2 has been noted in trials with cereals and grain legumes in controlled greenhouses or free-air CO2 enrichment FACE systems Table 3 , indicating the feasibility of exploiting genetic variation to develop cultivars responsive to eCO2. Reduced subsets Frankel, ; Upadhyaya and Ortiz, , representing the diversity of the entire collection of a given species in a genebank, are available for most cereal and grain legume crops Dwivedi et al.
Cultivars response to elevated carbon dioxide eCO2 relative to ambient carbon dioxide aCO2 in barley, common bean, lentil, maize, pea, rice, soybean, and wheat from — Establishing and operating CO2-fumigation facilities are costly. An alternative method is needed where large numbers of germplasm can be accommodated to assess genotype responses under eCO2.
In multi-year and multi-location trials involving diverse rice accessions, two planting densities normal and wider spacing , Shimono et al. The results from FACE confirmed that responsiveness to wider spacing density, as measured by changes in panicles plant-1, is positively associated with responsiveness to eCO2 across both temperate and tropical surroundings, suggesting that wider spacing density in rice would be a useful prescreen for testing diverse germplasm at low cost for responsiveness to eCO2 Shimono et al.
In rice and soybean RCs and the responsiveness of yield to eCO2 were positively associated Kumagai et al. The reason for these relationships may be due to the high CO2-responsive accessions exhibiting high plasticity in resource-rich environments Shimono, ; Shimono et al.
Additional research is required to assess the validity of these methods in diverse crops. Biomass, HI, heads per unit area, spikelet density, grains per panicle, and grain weight under eCO2 environments contributed to increased yield in cereals Shimono et al. Thus, crops were more responsive to eCO2 than wild relatives Jablonski et al. Elevated CO2 is associated with increased atmospheric temperature.
Both eCO2 and heat stress strongly affect crop production. There is a need to understand the genotypic response to such an interaction to identify genotypes responsive to eCO2 and heat stress. Similar antagonistic effects of eCO2 and high temperature were noted among diverse rice accessions Wang D. Rising CO2 may compensate for losses due to drought in some situations. However, a recent study — conducted over eight years under varying precipitation and with year-to-year variation in weather at a unique open-air field facility — revealed that stimulation of soybean yield by eCO2 diminished to zero as drought intensified and eCO2 interacted with drought to modify stomatal function and canopy energy balance Gray et al.
The above examples show the negative impact of rising CO2 on crop productivity due to changes in the intensity of drought and heat stress. Careful selection of crop cultivars responsive to eCO2 under drought and heat stress is needed, therefore, to minimize the negative impacts from interacting climatic factors in key crop production areas.
Further research involving this region unlocked two subregions enriched with 23 genes, of which four were functionally validated for drought tolerance in chickpea Kale et al.
Roorkiwal et al.
In common bean, 19 WRKY genes, 11 downregulated and eight upregulated, responded to drought stress Wu et al. Inilah kejadian sebenarnya yang terjadi pada manusia saat ini.
Exercise files accompany the course.
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