FUNDAMENTALS OF DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING. Time: Three hours. Maximum marks: Answer FIVE questions, taking ANY TWO from Group A. Fundamentals of Design & Manufacturing. PDF Files, Video Files. Design Introduction, Link to video file 1. Life Cycle, Link to Video file 2. Link to pdf file 3, Link to. Amie Fundamentals of Design and Manufacturing Design - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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Fundamentals of Design and Manufacturing - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. the fundamentals of a process, they can easily apply it A. H. Slocum, Precision Machine Design, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, FUNDAMENTALS OF DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING. Time: Three hours. Maximum Marks: Answer FIVE questions, taking ANY TWO trom Group A.
Design organisation and communication,. Concept of manufacturing; classification of manufacturing processes. Fundamentals of casting. Basic understanding of commonly used casting processes sand casting, investment casting and permanent mould casting processes. Fundamentals of metal forming; hot and cold working; basic understanding of primary metal forming processes rolling, forging, extrusion and drawing processes, punching and blanking.
Group B. Fundamentals of metal cutting; tool-work interaction for production of machined surfaces. Classification of machining processes. Basic machining operations turning, shaping, planning, drilling and milling processes. Fundamentals of grinding and finishing; overview of unconventional machining processes; fundamentals of welding processes; introduction to primary welding and allied processes; selection of manufacturing processes. Design for manufacturability. Need for integration-commercial, economic and technological perspective; basic tools of integration; concept of a system.
Introduction to group technology; introduction to simulation and database management systems. Elements of integration: Product and process design- for integration; design for economic manufacturing; design for manufacturing integration.
Flag for inappropriate content. The constructive non-conformists might generate a good idea. But the obstructive non-conformists will only slow down the design process. Creative designers are constructive non-conformists, and they want to do things in their own way. Technique Creative designers have more than one approach to problem solving. They are prepared to try alternative techniques, till they reach a satisfactory solution.
Motivation They always motivate others in the design team. In such a favourable environment creativity is further enhanced. Willingness to practice Creativity comes with practice. Creative designers are ready to practice for a long enough period.
Roadblocks to Creativity Fear of making a mistake Unwillingness to think and act in a way other than the accepted norm. Desire to conform to standard solutions. Unwillingness to try new approaches Fear of criticism Lack of knowledge Overconfidence due to past experience Unwillingness to reject old solutions Fear of authority Difficulty in visualization Inability to distinguish between cause and effect Inability to collect complete information Unwillingness to be different Page 5 Methods to enhance Creativity Use of analogy Asking question from different view points Memories of past designs Competitive products Deliberate day-dreaming Reading science fictions, etc.
Intuition [S'01] Intuition means sudden ideas or flashes of inspiration and involves complex associations of ideas, elaborated in subconscious mind. Intuitive ideas lead to a large number of good and even excellent solutions. Creative Design Route [W95, 94, 98, 9'00] Creative design route is the procedure through which a creative design is born. The success of this design lies with the creativity of the designer. Creative design route can be practiced by following the sequences shown in figure.
During preparation period, the designer analyses the need and collect all the necessary information required at various stages. Concentration is the period when the designer digests all the aspects of the problem situation and tries various possible combinations.
The next step is the incubation period.
The designer relaxes away from the problem for some time. Illumination is the sudden insight and throwing up with a solution. The final step is the verification. Now, testing and inspection of the design is done and the details are completed. For a designer using creative methods for design, habitual or familiar methods must be avoided. Apart from creativity-approach, this is a logical and intellectual attempt to solve design problems.
It largely depends on discoveries and laws of science.
The different steps in Engg. The need for a design is initiated by either a market requirement, the development of a new technology or the desire to improve an existing product. Once the need has identified, the next step is to define the design problem.
This is the most critical step in the design process. The definition of the problem expresses as specifically as possible, what the design is intended to accomplish. It should include objectives and goals, definitions of any special technical terms, the constraints on the design and the criteria that will be used to evaluate the designs.
The success of a design project depends on the clarity in the definition of the problem. Need Analysis is the technique used to define the problem Chapter 6. The next step is collecting information. In many phases of deign process a large quantity of information may be required.
The required information can be obtained from textbooks, journals, or other agencies See Art. Inventiveness and creating is very important in this step. The different ideas conceived are weighted and judged in the evaluation step. The advantages and disadvantages of each idea against its performance, cost aesthetics etc is valued. After evaluation, the best design is emerged. This final design with every detail is furnished in last step-ie c ommunicating the design.
Design W. Design is more or less common. Both steps deal with analyzing the need. In both design methods brainstorming and Synetics can be applied.
Reviewing is applicable in both design methods. For both deigns, the success depends on the clarity with which the need statement is prepared.
Testing and inspection is applicable for both designs. Creative design is based on use of analogy and synthesis of alternatives but engineering design is based on proven laws and past experience.
Creative design involves phases like incubation, illumination but no such philosophy is followed in engineering designs.
Creative person is highly intuitive and independent in thinking and usually resists working in group but engineering designers like teamwork. Customs, habits and traditions are enemies of creativity but the same are required in engineering design. Divergence, Transformation and Convergence phases.
The problem definition, need analysis and conceptualization etc. Thus, these activities belong to the Divergence phase. That activity wherein the concept is converted into physical object is termed as transformation phase. The convergence is a narrowing process, where the best optimal solution is tried for, by eliminating unwanted ideas. It has not been benefited greatly from advances in computer technology.
Engineers still use computers only in peripheral tasks, such as drafting and analyzing, but not in making fundamental design decisions. Current computer tools such as computer-aided drafting' are restricted to the end of the design process and play no fundamental role in aiding design. It aids only in the final drafting of the specifications. Computer-aided Design, CAD means a class of tools for crating drawing, or the physical description of the object. CAD systems have been sophisticated and 2D and 3D models are available.
The CAD allows the designer to conceptualize objects more easily. The design process in CAD system consists of the following stages. Geometric modeling Analysis and optimization Evaluation Documentation and drafting. Discuss the role of creativity in the designs process. Explain the various steps with the help of block diagram W. Explain W 99, 6M The creative design process can be considered to be S93 Discuss creativity and creative design.
Use examples to explain. W 95 What do you understand by intuition S 01 Draw a flow-chart showing different stages of engineering design. Explain why some stages are repeated several times. W'93 The process of design by evolution adopted by craftsman is a.. Slow process of design development W'94 With suitable examples, compare Design by evolution' and Design by innovation'.
S 96 Enumerate the steps in Engg. Design process and explain W'96 Justify the statement with reasons Modern design problems cannot be handled by traditional methods'. S'97, W'98 Good design requires both Analysis and Synthesis. S'93 Define creative design routes.
What are the stages of these routes, Explain these in brief.
S'00 Explain the process involved in creativity. What are the various qualities of creative designer? Give the brief description of these. What do you mean by creative design routes. Write down the different statements about creativity and creative designers. S'01 Compare the design synthesis and design analysis. Explain the basics procedure of design synthesis giving suitable examples.
S ' What are the common features and differences between creative design activities and Engg? Design activities. W'94 Discuss the divergence, transformation, and convergence phases in the design of a new product. S'97 What are the three different stages in the design process? Explain with example. W'99 What are the most important steps involved in the design process? W'00 What are the methods currently being adopted for design process using advanced technology?
W'00 Name various phases in design morphology. Explain these in brief. S'01 Explain Engg. Design S'01 What major steps are involved in design process? Briefly explain each one W' What do you understand by the design process? List out the various phases involved and explain them briefly. S'02 Give the checklist for an engg. Design problem. Use of analogy W ' What do you understand by the term creativity? What are its requirements?
Discuss the stages in engineering design process with the help of example. S 05 Explain Design processes. Illustrate the steps followed with the help of a figure.
Also explain the flow of work during the design process.
W 05, 8M What do you understand by morphology of design'? Discuss the phases of feasibility study, preliminary design and detailed design. W ' What is a need? A need can be defined as a personnel unfulfilled vacancy which determines and organizes all psychological and behavioral activities in the direction of fulfilling the vacancy A product can be product and marketed only if it is needed' by the customer.
A person buys a pen because he needs' to write. A patient needs' something that can cure his illness. These examples show that needs are nothing but a scarcity or problem or wants felt by a person, device or a system. In fact a designer's goal is to find solutions to such problems 4.
Hierarchy of Human needs W' 96 Maslow developed a hierarchy of human needs as given below 1. Physiological needs - These are the basic needs of the body- For example, thirst, hunger, sex, sleep etc. Safety and security needs For a person whose physiological needs are met, the new emerging needs are safety needs.
These include, protection against danger, threat etc. Social needs Once the physiological and safety needs are met, the next dominant need is social need. Psychological needs These are the needs for self-respect and self- esteem, and for recognition. Self-fulfillment needs These are the needs for the realisation of one's full potential through self-development, creativity, and self-expression.
When the sales personnel observes that their customers are always complaining of poor performance of the products, a need to develop a better product is identified.
Similarly, when the customers are unsatisfied with the present model', a new need is recognised. Needs can be identified from, Careful market analysis Statements made by politicians from their observations Interpretations of a community's requirements Trends in other parts of the world 4.
Variety of Needs [S'00] Following are the needs, which can generate ideas for the development of new products. Variation of an existing product. This could be a change in a single or a few parameters of an existing product.
Eg - Changing the length of a cylinder. Improvements in the existing product. This implies the need to redesign some of the features of an existing product. Such needs can arise, when -Customers want a new feature or better performance than existing features -A vendor can no longer supply components or materials that had been used so far -Manufacturing or assembly departments identifies a quality improvement -Invention of a new technology that can be incorporated in the existing design.
For example, there is more tendency to buy off-the shelf components for short-run products. Whatever may be the situation, a company has to identify or locate a need before the production of any device. Examples: 1. With the free-entry of Chinese products to Indian market, manufacturers in India recognize a need to sell their products at a lower price. When a company observes that their products do not perform well, the company recognizes a need to re-design it. It is a general statement specifying the problem for which a solution is required.
In other words-It is the objective of design, expressed in the form of a statement. Bicycle: The need statement for a bicycle could be A device for a common person to travel reasonable distance comfortably with least effort The initial cost should be low- and be as light as possible, have adequate life, be easy to maintain etc ii.
The indications for input and output voltage levels may be provided. Personnel Computer A computing device to accept input data, manipulate it according to a set of instructions and provide the desired output on CRT and printer Questions 1. List hierarchy of human needs that motivate individuals. Give one need statement for each of the following Bicycle ii Voltage stabilizer iii Personnel Computer [S'93] 3. Explain the steps involved in identification of a problem by a designer [S'96] 4.
Every product is made in response to. Enumerate and explain variety of needs which can generate ideas for the Development of new product. The starting point of a design project is a need. Once the need has been identified, the company has to ensure the worth of the project. Feasibility study is a preliminary analysis for making a decision regarding the design project, to be forwarded or not. If the feasibility study reveals that the proposed design project does not bring comfortable revenue, or the design demands huge investments beyond the capacity of the organisation, the project is dropped.
Product Planning [S 01] Planning is the process used to develop a scheme for scheduling and committing the resources of time, money and people. A plan shows how a project will be initiated, organized, co-coordinated and monitored. A product plan is a decision-making as regards to the design and manufacture of a product, by considering the revenues from different products. For example assume that a company already manufacturing 3 products, say P 1 , P 2 and P 3 identifies a need to design a new product N'.
Owing to the design and manufacture of the new product, the production volume, and hence revenue from products P 1 , P 2 ,and P 3 may be affected due to re-allocation of company resources such as raw materials, machineries. In this situation, the company has to decide a time-schedule for the design and manufacture of the new product. Such plan made by the management is called the product plan. It must contain the time-as well as resource allocation for each of the products.
More over it will result in optimum and efficient use of resources. After the product plan in made, the management begins a project for a new product design. Organisation Of Design Group The complexity of mechanical devices has grown rapidly over the last years. For example Boeing aircraft which has over 50, components required over 10 thousand persons' years of design time. Thousands of designers worked over a three-year period on the project. These show that, design work is generally done by a team or group.
Even for a large project such as the design of a ship or a bridge, one person had sufficient knowledge of the Physics, Materials and manufacturing processes to manage all aspects of the design and construction of the project.
This period is referred to as the period of design by single person in the history of design. By the middle of the 20th century products and manufacturing processes became so complex that, one person could not handle all aspects of design and manufacturing. This situation led to over-the-wall design process. In this method each functional departments were separated from others, as shown by wall. There was only one-way communications between Customer, Marketing, Engg. Design and production department.
The marketing department may throw the customer needs to the design department, in many instances, orally. The Engg. Design department may conceive a design and hands it over to the manufacturing sections. The manufacturing department interprets that design and makes the product according to what they think suitable. Unfortunately, often what is manufactured by a company using over-the-wall process is not what the customers had in mind. This is due to lack of interaction between the different departments.
Thus, this single direction over-the-wall approach is inefficient and costly and may result in poor quality products. By the early 's the concept of simultaneous engineering emerged. This philosophy emphasized simultaneous development of the manufacturing process- the goal was the simultaneous development of the product and the manufacturing process. This was accomplished by assigning manufacturing representatives to be members of design team, so that they could interact with the design engineers throughout the designs process.
In the 's the simultaneous design philosophy was broadened and called concurrent engineering. A short definition of concurrent engineering is the simultaneous progression of all aspects, at all stages of product development, product specification, design, process and equipment etc.
In concurrent engineering the primary focus is on the integration of teams of people having a stake in the product, design tools, and techniques and information about the product and the processes used to develop and manufacture it. Tools and techniques connect the teams with the information.